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Company “A” 9th Indiana Infantry. Photograph by Mathew Brady. Credit: National Archives, Brady Collection, Civil War Photographs.
Over the next four years, there will be many 150th anniversaries of the Civil War, and Britannica’s feature, “Remembering the American Civil War,” will help you navigate through that bloody conflict. This week is the 150th anniversary of the First Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas), and on this occasion we present this lecture by James M. McPherson, Pulitzer Prize-winning Civil War historian and senior adviser to Encyclopaedia Britannica, which he gave in Charleston, South Carolina, on April 12, 2011, on the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Fort Sumter. It was the last lecture in a series (April 8–12, 2011) called “Why They Fought: Reflections on the 150th Anniversary of the American Civil War,” produced by the Fort Sumter–Fort Moultrie Historical Trust of Charleston. In the lecture McPherson considers the motivation of soldiers on both sides of the Civil War, basing many of his observations on the diaries and wartime letters of the soldiers themselves.
* * *
The motivation of soldiers in the Civil War is a subject that has long intrigued me. Most of the fighting men in that war were neither professional soldiers nor draftees—they were volunteers. The dominant themes in their wartime letters were homesickness and a longing for peace. The pay was poor; the large enlistment bounties received by some Union soldiers late in the war were exceptional; most volunteers made economic sacrifices to join the army. What motivated them to give up several of the best years of their lives—indeed, to give up life itself in a war that killed almost as many American soldiers as all the rest of the wars this country has fought combined? What enabled them to overcome that most basic of instincts, self-preservation, and risk their lives in combat?
This is a vital question in all wars, for without such sacrificial behavior by soldiers, armies could not fight. For the American Civil War the question is perhaps more baffling than for most wars, because some traditional answers have little if any relevance. Religious fanaticism and ethnic hatreds do not apply; discipline was notoriously lax in Civil War armies; training was minimal; the coercive power of the state was relatively weak; subordination and unquestioning obedience to orders were alien to this most democratic and individualistic of 19th-century societies. Yet the Union and Confederate armies mobilized three million men. What made these men tick? What motivated them to fight and if necessary to die—a fate suffered by more than 600,000 of them.
To answer this question, the best place to go is the writings of these soldiers themselves, in their letters to families and friends during the war, or the diaries they kept during their experience. Civil War armies were the most literate in history to that time. Their letters and diaries constitute a rich and almost unique source—almost unique in the sense that there was no censorship of the letters of Civil War soldiers, no prohibition or discouragement of diary keeping, as there has been in many other wars. Thus many of these letters—and diaries—were remarkably candid and detailed about important matters that would not get into censored letters: morale, relations between officers and men, details of marches and battles, politics and ideology and war aims, and so on.
There is a large literature on combat motivation in modern armies— especially in World War II armies, and more recent wars. When I began my research in Civil War soldiers’ letters and diaries, I was guided in what to look for by this literature. It investigated the traditional assumptions about what motivates soldiers to fight: patriotism, ideology, religion, ideals of duty and honor and manhood; glory and adventure; training and discipline; and coercion. These studies found that while some or all of these factors in combination may have been important for some soldiers, for most of them the key factor was what the social psychologists called “primary group cohesion.”
What is that? The soldier’s primary group consists of his comrades in the squad or platoon or gun crew. Bonded by the common danger they face in battle, they become a band of brothers whose mutual dependence and mutual support in combat create the cohesion necessary to function as a fighting unit. The survival of each member of the group depends on the others doing their jobs; the survival of the group depends on the steadiness of each individual. So does their individual and collective self-respect. If any of them falters or is paralyzed by fear—skedaddles or skulks, to use Civil War terminology—that individual not only endangers his own and the others’ survival; he also courts their contempt and ostracism; he loses face; he loses self-respect as a man. The compulsion of the peer group is a greater force than coercion by officers or by the state. As one of the leading writers on combat motivation in World War II, S.L.A. Marshall, put it in his book Men Against Fire: “No man wants to die; what induces him to risk his life bravely?” It is not “belief in a cause”; “when the chips are down, a man fights to help the man next to him. . . . Men do not fight for a cause but because they do not want to let their comrades down.”*
Given the prominence of this theme in studies of 20th-century soldiers, it was one of the most important things I was sensitive to in my research. And I found a great deal of evidence for it in the writings of Civil War soldiers. Many soldiers echoed these words of enlisted men from Texas and Massachusetts and Alabama respectively: We “seem almost like brothers. We have suffered hardships and dangers together and are bound together by more than ordinary ties.” “I have now spent a whole year with my comrads in battle and having been with them in all circumstances I must say that every one of them is as a brother to me.” “A soldier is always nearly crazy to get away from the army on furloughs but as a general thing they are more anxious to get back. There is a feeling of love—a strong attachment for those with whom one has shared common dangers, that is never felt for any one else.” An Ohio colonel felt forever bonded to the men with whom he endured the horrible carnage of Shiloh: “Those who had stood shoulder to shoulder during the two terrible days of that bloody battle, were hooped with steel, with bands stronger than steel.”
The fear of giving way to fear, the shame of cowardice in the eyes of one’s peers, was also a powerful motivator in Civil War armies. The greatness of Stephen Crane’s novel about a young Civil War soldier, Red Badge of Courage, is that it brilliantly portrays this sentiment. And so do many of the soldiers’ letters I have read. A Connecticut private wrote just before his first battle: “I am so afraid I shall prove a coward. I can hardly think of anything else.” Afterwards he uttered a sigh of relief that he had passed the test: “A little shaky at first but soon got used to the music. I know no one will say that I behaved cowardly in the least.” An Ohio soldier confessed in his diary that he was shaking like a leaf before he went into his first action, but he was determined nevertheless to “stand up to my duties like a man, let the consequences be as they might. I had rather die like a brave man, than have a coward’s ignominy cling around my name and live. . . . Of all names most terrible and to be dreaded is coward.” In 1864 a New York veteran of two years’ fighting responded to his sister’s question: “You ask me if the thought of death does not alarm me. I will say I do not wish to die . . . but have too much honor [too much courage] to hold back while others are going forward. I myself am as big a coward as eny could be but give me the ball [bullet] before the coward when all my friends and companions are going forward.”
One important factor that made this motivation so important was that most Civil War companies were recruited from the same community or region. Many of the men in a regimental company had been friends and neighbors back home. Their families knew each other. Thus any reports of cowardice or other non-performance in battle not only ruined a man’s reputation among his comrades, it also brought disgrace to his family and community. He could never hold up his head again in the army or at home. An Ohio officer wrote to his wife about another officer from their town who had “proved himself a coward on the battlefield . . . what a stigma for men to transmit to their posterity—your father a coward!” A North Carolina sergeant said that if any man in his regiment showed “thewhite feather, he should never return to live in N. Carolina.”
Soldiers’ letters and diaries contain much evidence of other kinds of motivation for fighting: for example leadership, especially leadership by example of officers who would not ask their men to do anything they were not willing to do themselves; the motives of defending hearth and home against an invading enemy, and of revenge against a foe that has ravaged one’s country, which of course operated mainly for Confederate rather than Union soldiers; the physiological effects of extreme stress and fear, and of rage, which causes the adrenal glands to pump an extraordinary amount of adrenalin into the body, producing an altered state of consciousness wherein men sometimes lost all sensation of fear and danger, gained almost superhuman strength, and behaved with a sort of fighting madness that defied the normal instinct of self-preservation. Civil War soldiers did not understand the body chemistry that produced this phenomenon, but their descriptions of feelings and actions during combat make it clear that many of them experienced it.
Religion is another complex factor in combat behavior that was important for Civil War soldiers. Prayer to God for protection from danger is a common theme in letters and diaries. It probably helped many of them to face that danger more readily. A powerful theme in the letters is a kind of fatalism, a belief that if one’s time had come, God would take him no matter what; if not, God would protect him even in the midst of bullets— and this too helped soldiers face those bullets. As a captain in the 4th Alabama Infantry expressed it in a letter to his wife: “I might as well die at home as in battle, [for] we are feeble instruments in the hands of the Supreme Power [and] no man can die before the day appointed by God, or live after that hour.”
Civil War soldiers belonged to a generation powerfully affected by the Second Great Awakening in the history of American Protestantism. Many soldiers believed literally in salvation, in a life after death. The travail of life on earth was merely preparation for a better existence hereafter. Thus they could confront the possibility of death with greater equanimity than could a non-believer, for whom death was the end of existence. A private in the 33rd Mississippi wrote to his wife that “Christians make the best soldiers, as they would not fear the consequences after death as others would.” Skeptics and non-believers confirmed this observation. A South Carolina artillery officer confessed that the prospect of death terrified him because “I am not a christian—a christian can afford to be a philosopher because he believes in a certain reunion hereafter but a poor devil who cant believe it hasn’t that support.” For those who did have that support, it played a part in nerving them to face the prospect of death in battle, to act with courage in the belief that even a terrible death was not the end of life. A Massachusetts soldier told his wife that “if I shall fall in this contest it is but going home to my savior whom I love . . . if we meet not again on earth prepare to meet me in Heaven.” This religious conviction was not a motive for fighting, but a way of overcoming the greatest inhibition to combat, the fear of death.
Let me turn to one of the more controversial findings in my research on Civil War soldiers’ motivation: the role of ideology. In much of the literature on this subject, one might get the impression that such a role did not exist. In some quarters there has been a belief that most Civil War soldiers had little or no idea what they were fighting for. In William Faulkner’s novel Sartoris, someone asks a Confederate veteran what the war had been about. He replies: “damned ef I ever did know.” Some years ago the commander of the New York branch of the Sons of Union Veterans said that “it wasn’t because our fathers knew what they were fighting for that they were heroes. They didn’t know what they were fighting for, exactly, and they fought on anyway. That’s what made them heroes.”
But, to the contrary, the prevalence of ideological themes in the letters and diaries of many soldiers jumps out at the reader. Many, many soldiers were intensely aware of the issues at stake in the war and passionately concerned about them. Their expressions on these issues ranged from simple but heartfelt avowals of patriotism to well-informed and often quite sophisticated discussions of the Constitution, state’s rights, nationalism, majority rule, self-government, democracy, liberty, and slavery.
To provide some background and context for understanding this, let me remind you again that these were the most literate armies in history to that time. They also came from the world’s most democratic and highly- politicized society. They had grown up in the highly charged political culture of the 1850s with its polarization between slavery and antislavery, South and North, the Southern Rights Democratic party and the new antislavery Republican party. Their median age at the time of enlistment was 23-1/2, which meant that most of them had voted in the election of 1860, the most heated and momentous election in American history which brought out almost 85 percent of the eligible voters. These citizen soldiers continued to vote during the war, not only electing some of their officers in these volunteer regiments but also voting in state and national elections by absentee ballot. Americans were the world’s pre-eminent newspaper- reading people in the 19th century. Soldiers continued this habit during the war, when they eagerly snapped up newspapers available in camp a few days after publication.
Here are just a few examples from many I could cite to illustrate my point. A Mississippi private wrote in his diary during the winter of 1862: “Spend much time in reading the daily papers & discussing the war question in general.” Two years later an Alabama officer in the trenches at Petersburg wrote to his wife: “We have daily access to the Richmond papers. . . . We spend much of our time in reading these journals and discussing the situation.” A New York captain wrote home in 1864: “It is a very great mistake to suppose that the soldier does not think. Our soldiers are closer thinkers and reasoners than the people at home. It is the soldiers who have educated the people at home . . . to a just perception of our great duties in this contest. . . . Every soldier [knows] he [is] fighting not only for his own liberty but [even] more for the liberty of the human race for all time to come.”
Several units established debating societies during less active times in winter quarters, especially in the Union army. An Illinois sergeant’s diary described some of these debates in camp near Vicksburg during the winter of 1863–1864: “Took part on the affirmative of Resolved that the Constitutional relations of the rebel states should be fixed by Congress only.” Another debate, he wrote, “discussed the question of reducing rebel states to territories.” Still another: “Sergeants Rollins & Need discussed ably the rights of the South. Sergt. Miller expanded on the revolution of ideas.” The following winter a New York private recovering from a wound described a debating society among convalescent soldiers, which discussed among other subjects the following: “Resolved that the present struggle will do more to establish and maintain a republican form of government than the Revolutionary war.”
This last debate topic suggests one of the dominant themes of Civil War ideology: the self-conscious awareness of parallels with the generation that fought the Revolution and gave birth to the nation. Americans in both the Union and Confederacy believed themselves custodians of the legacy of the founding fathers. The crisis of 1861 to 1865 was the great test of their worthiness of that heritage. Soldiers on both sides felt intensely this honorable burden: on their shoulders rode the fate of that great experiment of republican self-government launched in 1776.
The tragic irony of the Civil War was that Confederate and Union soldiers interpreted this heritage in opposite ways. In the image of the founders, Confederates professed to fight for liberty and independence from what they considered a tyrannical government; Unionists fought to preserve the nation created by the founders from dismemberment and destruction. A Virginia officer filled letters to his mother with comparisons of the North’s “war of subjugation against the South” to “England’s war upon the [American] colonies.” He was certain the Confederacy would win this “second War for American Independence” because “Tyranny cannot prosper in the nineteenth century” against “a people fighting for their liberties.” An Alabama corporal referred in his diary to the Confederacy’s struggle for “the same principles which fired the hearts of our ancestors in the revolutionary struggle.”
Northern consciousness of the duty to defend the legacy of 1776 was equally powerful. A Wisconsin private considered “this second war . . . equally as holy as the first . . . by which . . . our fathers . . . gained those liberties and privileges which have made us such a great and prosperous nation.” A 29 year-old lieutenant from Ohio wrote to his wife, who complained to him about the burdens of raising three young children while worrying about the fate of their father: “Remember that thousands went forth and poured out their lifs blood in the Revolution to establish this government; and twould be a disgrace to the whole American people if she had not noble sons enough who had the spirit of seventy six in their hearts to stand up nobly in defence of the flag of our country.” Many Union soldiers also echoed Lincoln’s words that the Union cause represented the last best hope for the survival of republican self-government in the world. A 21 year-old Ohio corporal thought “we may better die . . . than allow the glorious fabric of American Liberty to crumble into the dust and the grand experiment of man’s capability to devise laws for his own government be frustrated by the vile hands of infernal rebels. Then would . . . tyranny rejoice in victory.”
Union convictions often tended to focus on somewhat abstract principles: national unity, constitutional liberty, survival of the republican experiment; the principle of majority rule. Principles of liberty and self- government were, of course, important in Confederate ideology as well. I’ll come back to the liberty theme in a moment. But many Southern soldiers tied these principles to the more visceral, concrete motives of defending their land and homes against the hated invader they believed had come south to despoil and enslave them. Hatred and revenge were a dominant motif. A Texas officer told his wife to teach their children “a bitter and unrelenting hatred to the Yankee race” that had “invaded our country . . . [and] murdered our best citizens.” Many Confederate soldiers tied this motive to the theme of slavery—but not in the way one might expect. A Mississippian said he was fighting to help “drive from our soil the ruthless invader who is seeking to reduce us to abject slavery. . . . Let our last entrenchments be our graves before we will be conquered.” He got his wish—at Chickamauga. A Georgia soldier met the same fate at Spotsylvania less than three months after he had written to a friend that “the Deep still quiet peace of the grave is more desirable than Vassalage or Slavery.”
These soldiers were using the word “slavery” in the same sense that American revolutionists of 1776 had used it to refer to their subordination to Britain. Some Confederates could go on in the next breath to affirm the protection of property rights in black slaves as a reason for fighting. If the Confederacy lost the war, said a Texas officer in 1864, the South would “lose slaves, liberty, and all that makes life dear.” A Georgia captain who owned forty slaves wrote to his wife in 1863 from the front in Virginia of “the arch of liberty we are trying to build”—and several sentences later advised her to sell a troublesome slave. Three weeks later he reassured his wife, who had expressed doubts about the survival of slavery as an institution, that if the Confederacy won the war, slavery “is established for centuries.” A Georgia officer fighting in the Atlanta campaign during 1864 wrote his wife that “in two months more we will perhaps be an independent nation or a nation of slaves.” If we lose, “not only will the negroes be free but . . . we will all be on a common level.” But a Texas private remained confident even in 1864 that Confederate victory would prevent this from happening, because “we are fighting for matters real and tangible . . . our property and our homes . . . they for matters abstract and intangible . . . for the flimsy and abstract idea that a negro is equal to an Anglo American.”
Few Yankees professed to fight for racial equality, however. Nor did many white Union soldiers claim to fight solely or even primarily for emancipation. But from the beginning of the war, there were some soldiers whose nationalism fused with antislavery conviction to produce an ideological mix of Liberty and Union, one and inseparable. A Massachusetts private told his parents that he considered “the object of our government as one worth dying to attain—the maintenance of our free institutions which must of necessity result in the freedom of every human being over whom the stars and stripes wave. Who desires peace while such an institution as slavery exists among us?”
But this question badly divided Union soldiers, especially during the six or eight months surrounding Lincoln’s issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation. It contributed to a severe morale crisis in Union armies during the winter of 1862–1863. A New York artillery officer wrote in 1862 that the war must be “for the preservation of the Union, the putting down of armed rebellion, and for that purpose only.” If Lincoln gave in to radical pressure to make it “an abolition war . . . I for one shall be sorry that I ever lent a hand to it.” An Indiana private told his parents that “if emancipation is to be the policy of this war . . . I do not care how quick the country goes to pot.” In the officers’ mess of a New York regiment a lieutenant in January 1863 reported “several pretty spirited, I may call them hot, controversies about slavery, the Emancipation Edict and kindred subjects. It is not a very acceptable idea to me that we are Negro Crusaders. Anything, however, as I have often said, to crush the rebellion and give us back the Union with all its stars.”
This lieutenant’s last sentence provides the key to understanding a significant change that occurred in the Union army after mid-1863. Many soldiers previously opposed to or skeptical about emancipation came to accept it, not as an ideological war aim but as a means to weaken the Confederacy and win the war. Some of these soldiers eventually became full-fledged abolitionists. My favorite example of this transformation of attitude toward slavery is a young private in the 103rd Ohio, who wrote several letters home in the early months of 1863 after the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation. “I enlisted to fight for and vindicate the supremacy of the constitution,” he wrote, but “we did not enlist to fight for the negro and I can tell you that we never shall . . . sacrafise [our] lives for the liberty of a miserable black race of beings.” By the fall of 1863, however, he was changing his tune. He now wrote to his horrified father that he believed the abolition of slavery would be “a means of haistening the speedy Restoration of the Union and the termination of the war.” Having denounced the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, he was praising it a year later. “It was intended to weaken the rebellion and I can asshure you it was a great blow to them.” By January 1865, another year later, he had made the pilgrimage all the way to genuine abolitionism when he wrote in joyous anticipation of a restored nation “free free free yes free from that blighting curs Slavery the cause of four years of Bloody Warfare.”
I want to sum up by classifying the motivation of these volunteer citizen soldiers of the Civil War into three separate but related categories: initial motivation; sustaining motivation; and combat motivation. My discussion in the latter part of this lecture on ideological convictions deals with initial motivation—the reason many of these men enlisted in the first place—and sustaining motivation—their convictions about what they were fighting for, convictions that kept them going and motivated many of them to re-enlist. Combat Motivation relates more to the themes of primary group cohesion, fear of being considered a coward, and religion that I discussed earlier—the factors that enabled men to go forward into a hail of bullets, that enabled them to face the music at the moment of truth. Of these three categories of motivation, the most controversial, the one on which I have been challenged by some critics, is sustaining motivation. They argue that even if many soldiers were patriotic, ideological, and gung-ho when they first enlisted, their enthusiasm and convictions waned and turned more cynical or weary as the war went on and on. There is some truth to this. But what impressed me in my research was the degree to which these ideological convictions persisted in the minds of many soldiers. A couple of examples. A Texas Confederate officer wrote to his wife in 1864: “I am sick of war” and of “the separation from the dearest objects of life,” his wife and children, but “were the contest again just commenced I would willingly undergo it again for the sake of . . . our country’s independence and [our children’s] liberty.” About the same time a Pennsylvania Union officer wrote to his wife that he must fight it out to the end because, “sick as I am of this war and bloodshed as much oh how much I want to be home with my dear wife and children . . . every day I have a more religious feeling, that this war is a crusade for the good of mankind. . . . I [cannot] bear to think of what my children would be if we were to permit this hell-begotten conspiracy to destroy this country.” These persisting convictions were the glue that held both the Confederate and Union armies together through four bloody years and enabled them to endure far higher casualties than any other armies in American history and keep fighting.
*Maj. Gen. Terry de la Mesa Allen’s remarks at the battleground of Sicily.